Monthly Weather Bulletin
The country is now in the middle phase of the Northeast Monsoon and most places have experienced the dry and cold weather conditions. Weather conditions influenced the direction the wind is blowing from the northeast bringing cold air from Mainland of China, which was experiencing their winter. Furthermore, contributing factor to these dry conditions is due to the stable atmosphere which at the same time causing less formation of cloud. Over the last January, areas in Southern Peninsular and Eastern Sarawak experienced dry conditions with a reduction of rainfall from 20 % to 60 % above normal. While in Sabah, some areas received rainfall between 20 % and 60 % above average. Based on the records at Main Malaysian Meteorological Stations, the temperature readings was relatively low compared to the long term average for January, while solar radiation and evaporation rate are relatively high compared to their average.
Over the Peninsular, especially in Perlis, Northern Kedah, Negeri Sembilan, Melaka, Johor and Southern Pahang has experienced a reduction in rainfall up to 60% below average with the downpour amount less than 100 mm per month. However, over the other areas in Peninsular, the rainfall amount was at the average level between 150 mm to 280 mm. The dry conditions that start from mid-January were due to shifting of the wind path origin which normally flows from the South China Sea origin with moist air, to the Mainland of China origin with dry and cold air. Kuantan Meteorological Station recorded the highest rainfall of 277.2 mm while the lowest rainfall was 3.6 mm at Chuping Meteorological Station.
In Sarawak, there are areas that experienced a dry weather condition such as in Kuching, Samarahan and Sri Aman with rainfall reductions of 20 % to 40 % below average. While in other parts, normal rainfall amount was recorded up to slightly above average with a total of rainfall between 400 mm to 500 mm. The highest rainfall recorded in Sarawak was at Limbang Meteorological Station of 680.4 mm, while Sri Aman Meteorological Station recorded the lowest rainfall reading of 236.2 mm.
On the other hand, In Sabah and Labuan, the rainfall amount had increased up to 60 % above average which occurred in the West Coast and Sandakan areas while in other parts, normal rainfall of 200 mm to 600 mm was recorded. This condition occurs due to the current status at Sabah which experiencing the northeast monsoon with no direct effect by the situation occurring in Peninsular. Labuan Meteorological Station recorded the highest rainfall of 550.0 mm while 113.6 mm were the lowest reading recorded at Tawau Meteorological Station.
Whereas, number of rain days ranged, from 2 (Chuping Meteorological Station) to 20 days (Ipoh Meteorological Station) was recorded over Peninsular. Though, there are also areas that had not received rainfall for 21 consecutive days towards end of January 2014 as recorded at Chuping, Melaka and Kluang Meteorological Station. Meanwhile, number of rain days received by Sabah and Federal Territory of Labuan, ranged from 13 (Tawau Meteorological Station) to 24 days (Kudat and Labuan Meteorological Station) was recorded. Sarawak received rainfall for almost every day, with the number of rain days ranged, from 19 (Sibu Meteorological Station) to 27 days (Kapit Meteorological Station).
In general, almost the whole country has recorded a lower temperature compared to monthly long-term temperature. This condition was caused by the north westerly wind from Mainland of China, who was experiencing their winter. Furthermore, the atmospheric conditions with no cloud formation during the period, has cause the low temperatures, experienced at night and early in the morning.
This month, the mean monthly temperature for lowland area ranged from 22.7 °C (Ranau Meteorological Station) to 27.9 °C (Langkawi Meteorological Station) with the largest negative deviation of -1.2 °C at Limbang Meteorological Station.
Avarage minimum temperature for lowland areas ranged from 19.8 °C (Ranau Meteorological Station) to 24.7 °C (Bayan Lepas and Langkawi Meteorological Station). The lowest temperature recorded in the month was 15.3 °C at Ranau Meteorological station.
The mean maximum temperature ranged from 27.8 °C in lowland (Ranau Meteorological Station) to 32.7 °C (Prai Meteorological Station). The highest temperature of the month was recorded at Prai Meteorological Station with a reading 34.8 °C.
Meanwhile, Cameron Highland Meteorological Station as the only highland station has recorded the temperature ranging from 14.3 °C to 20.8 °C with the mean temperature 16.9 °C.
A total of 16 stations recorded the solar radiation data in January 2014 and half of it, recorded higher amount received compare to average. The mean daily solar radiation in the lowland areas ranged from 12.09MJm-2 (Miri Meteorological Station) to 20.72 MJm-2 (Langkawi Meteorological Station). While in Cameron Highlands the average was 15.95MJm-2 . The largest positive deviation from normal was +2.57MJm-2 (KLIA Sepang Meteorological Station) and the largest negative deviation from normal was -5.95 MJm-2 (Bayan Lepas Meteorological Station).
This January, the daily mean evaporation rate for lowland ranged from 2.3 mm/day recorded at Sibu Meteorological Station to 6.4 mm/day recorded at Melaka Meteorological Station. The largest positive deviation from normal was +1.55 mm/day recorded at Melaka Meteorological Station. While, the average daily evaporation rate recorded at Cameron Highlands Meteorological Station was 2.2 mm/day, with the deviation from normal was +0.3 mm/day .
FIGURE 1 : Rainfall Map for Malaysia
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