Monthly Weather Bulletin
In general our country is now in the phase of Northeast Monsoon Season. Usually during this time, weather conditions will become humid especially to states in east coast Peninsular Malaysia. Combination of cold surges from China Continents and easterly winds from Pacific Ocean have formed convective clouds that bring continuous heavy rain and caused massive flooding to a number of areas in Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang.
December this year, states in Peninsular and Sabah received rainfall distributions above normal while most areas in Sarawak experienced dry weather conditions with total rainfall amount below average values. Meanwhile temperature, solar radiation and evaporation rate records at Pricipal Meteorological Stations in Malaysia recorded higher readings compared to long term average for December.
On December 2014, Kelantan, Terengganu, Pahang, Perlis, Kedah, Pulau Pinang, North Perak, South Selangor and coastal areas in Negeri Sembilan have received total rainfall amount more than 60% above average values. Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang recorded monthly total rainfall amount exceeded 1200 mm. In contrast, southern part of Perak and southern part of Johore recorded total rainfall amount below average values with readings less than 200 mm.
In the other hand, there were 6 stations that marked its new monthly highest rainfall record for December; Prai (with readings of 235.4 mm compared to last time in year 2011 which the monthly highest rainfall amount recorded was 208.8 mm), Alor Setar (with readings of 265.2 mm since last time in year 1965 which the monthly highest rainfall amount recorded was 251.5 mm), Gong Kedak (with readings of 1175.2 mm compared to last time in year 2012, the monthly highest rainfall amount recorded was 1160.2 mm), Petaling Jaya (with readings of 518.8 mm since last time in year 2012, the monthly highest rainfall amount recorded was 455.2 mm), KLIA Sepang (with readings of 385.0 mm since last time in year 2003, the monthly highest rainfall amount recorded was 336.2 mm) and Kuantan (with readings of 1806.0 mm since last time in year 2001, the monthly highest rainfall amount recorded was 1471.1 mm).
Based on analysis from records at Principal Meteorological Stations in Peninsular, the highest total rainfall amount was recorded at Kuantan Meteorological Station with readings of 1806.0 mm while the lowest total rainfall amount was recorded at Sitiawan Meteorological Station with readings of 127.8 mm.
West and north divisions of Sabah experienced rainfall distributions 60% above average values. Kudat Division recorded monthly rainfall amount more than 400 mm. In contrast, east division of Sabah received rainfall distributions with total rainfall amount 40% below average values. Based on rainfall records at Principal Meteorological Stations is Sabah and Federal Territory of Labuan, the highest rainfall was recorded at Kudat Meteorological Station with readings of 863.0 mm and the lowest total rainfall amount was recorded at Tawau Meteorological Station with readings of 132.2 mm.
The highest number of rain days were 27 days recorded at Kota Bharu Meteorological Station for Peninsular area, 27 days at Kuching and Sibu Meteorological Stations in Sarawak and 26 days at Kudat Meteorological Station for Sabah and Federal Territory of Labuan. Meanwhile the lowest number of rain days were 16 days as recorded at Kuala Pilah Meteorological Station in Peninsular, 14 days at Miri Meteorological Station in Sarawak and 17 days at Tawau Meteorological Station in Sabah and Federal Territory of Labuan.
Most of Principal Meteorological Stations nationwide recorded higher temperature reading compared to average values. Monthly mean temperature values at low land areas ranged from 24.1˚C as recorded at Ranau Meteorological Station to 27.7˚C as recorded at Pulau Langkawi Meteorological Station. Largest positive deviation was +0.8°C as recorded at Senai and Sandakan Meteorological Stations. Monthly mean minimum temperature values ranged from 20.8˚C to 25.3˚C with lowest minimum temperature was 17.1°C as recorded at Ranau Meteorological Station. Meanwhile mean maximum temperature values ranged from 29.2˚C to 32.3˚C with highest maximum temperature was 35.3˚C as recorded at Batu Embun Meteorological Station.
The one and only weather station at high land areas, Cameron Highlands Meteorological Station recorded temperature readings ranged from 15.9˚C to 21.1˚C with average temperature of 17.9˚C.
Mean daily solar radiation at low land areas ranged from 3.73 MJm-² as recorded at Kota Bharu Meteorological Station to 19.35 MJm-² as recorded at Kapit Meteorological Station. A total of 4 meteorological stations recorded higher solar radiation amount compared to normal. Mean solar radiation recorded at Cameron Highlands Meteorological Station was 11.02 MJm-² Largest positive deviation from normal was +2.45 MJm-² as recorded at Miri Meteorological Station while largest negative deviation from normal was -9.05 MJm-² as recorded at Kota Bharu Meteorological Station.
Mean daily evaporation rate for low land areas ranged from 2.2 mm/day as recorded at Temerloh Meteorological Station to 4.2 mm/day as recorded at Kudat Meteorological Station. Largest positive deviation from normal was +0.9 mm/day recorded at Kuantan Meteorological Station. Meanwhile, mean daily evaporation rate recorded at Cameron Highlands Meteorological Station was 1.3 mm/day.
FIGURE 1 : Rainfall Map for Malaysia
FIGURE 2a : Mean Monthly Temperature
FIGURE 2b : Mean Monthly Maximum Temperature
FIGURE 2c : Mean Monthly Minimum Temperature
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