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Monthly Weather Bulletin
Rainfall distributions in Malaysia during the month of September 2013 were affected by the presence of two typhoons; Usagi and Wutip Typhoons in West Pacific Oceans and Philippines Seas areas. The appearence of Usagi Typhoon during second decade has caused less rainfall distributions in most areas in Malaysia. In the other hand, Wutip Typhoon that has raged Vietnam and Thailand also brought rainfall to Northern part of Peninsular during third decade. In general, states in Peninsular and Sarawak received normal rainfall distributions while almost areas in Sabah experienced dry weather conditions with total rainfall amount below average values. Meanwhile temperature, solar radiation and evaporation rate records at Pricipal Meteorological Stations in Malaysia recorded higher readings compared to long term average for September.
2. In general our Country experienced decreasing rainfall distributions in September compared to normal conditions. However, most of the areas in Peninsular received normal rainfall amount except for areas in Northern and Southern part of Perak, Northern part of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, North Eastern part of Johore, Northern part of Terengganu and Northern part of Kelantan which experienced decreasing total rainfall amount around 40% to 60% below average values. In addition, Sabak Bernam District in Selangor, Jempol District in Negeri Sembilan and Mersing District in Johore received minimum rainfall amount with total rainfall less than 100 mm and were categorized as 60% below average values. Total rainfall amount recorded at Principal Meteorological Stations. Highest total rainfall amount was recorded at Butterworth Meteorological Station with readings of 490.8 mm. While the lowest total rainfall amount was recorded at Mersing Meteorological Station with readings of 66.6 mm.
3. Almost all areas in Sarawak experienced decreasing rainfall distributions although the total rainfall amount received were still categorized as normal. However, Sarikei, Betong, Samarahan and Kuching areas experienced dry weather conditions with total rainfall amount less than 200 mm and was categorized as 40% below average values. Based on rainfall records at Meteorological Stations in Sarawak, the highest rainfall amount was recorded at Mulu Meteorological Station with readings of 416.4 mm while the lowest total rainfall amount was recorded at Sibu Meteorological Station with readings of 210.8 mm.
4. Sabah experienced minimum rainfall distributions with total rainfall amount less than 200 mm in majority Divisions. In addition, Kudat and Interior Divisions received total rainfall amount below 60% compared to average values. Federal Territory of Labuan also faced the same weather conditions, however, total rainfall amount received around 300 mm to 400 mm were still categorized as normal. Based on rainfall records at Principal Meteorological Stations is Sabah and Federal Territory of Labuan, the highest rainfall was recorded at Kota Kinabalu Meteorological Station with readings of 344.4 mm and the lowest total rainfall amount was recorded at Keningau Meteorological Station with readings of 60.0 mm.
5. The highest number of rain days were 20 days recorded at Senai Meteorological Station for Peninsular area, 23 days at Kapit Meteorological Station in Sarawak and 17 days at Kota Kinabalu Meteorological Station in Sabah and Federal Territory of Labuan. Meanwhile the lowest number of rain days were 10 days as recorded at Gong Kedak Meteorological Station in Peninsular, 17 days at Miri Meteorological Station in Sarawak and 12 days at Kudat Meteorological Station in Sabah and Federal Territory of Labuan.
6. Based on classification scheme on rainfall decile values and percentage deviation from monthly average, it was determined that 4 stations recorded total rainfall amount much above average, 22 stations similar to average, 9 stations below average and 2 stations much below average.
7. Most of Principal Meteorological Stations nationwide recorded higher temperature reading compared to average values. Monthly mean temperature values at low land areas ranged from 24.6˚C as recorded at Ranau Meteorological Station to 28.3˚C as recorded at Sandakan Meteorological Station. Largest positive deviation was +1.0°C as recorded at Senai and Sandakan Meteorological Stations. Monthly mean minimum temperature values ranged from 20.0˚C to 25.1˚C with lowest minimum temperature was 16.9°C as recorded at Ranau Meteorological Station. Meanhile mean maximum temperature values ranged from 30.7˚C to 33.4˚C with highest maximum temperature was 35.8˚C as recorded at Temerloh and Mulu Meteorological Stations.
8. The one and only weather station at high land areas, Cameron Highlands Meteorological Station recorded temperature readings ranged from 14.7˚C to 24.3˚C with average temperature of 18.0˚C.
9. Mean daily solar radiation at low land areas ranged from 15.60MJm-2 as recorded at Kuching Meteorological Station to 21.00MJm-2 as recorded at KLIA Sepang Meteorological Station. A total of 16 meteorological stations recorded higher solar radiation amount compared to normal. Mean solar radiation recorded at Cameron Highlands Meteorological Station was 14.70MJm-2 . Largest positive deviation from normal was +3.30MJm-2 as recorded at KLIA Sepang Meteorological Station.
10. Mean daily evaporation rate for low land areas ranged from 3.0 mm/day as recorded at Mersing and Batu Embun Meteorological Stations to 5.2 mm/day as recorded at Kota Kinabalu Meteorological Station. Largest positive deviation from normal was +1.0 mm/day recorded at Sitiawan Meteorological Station. Meanwhile, mean daily evaporation rate recorded at Cameron Highlands Meteorological Station was 2.0 mm/day with deviation from normal was 0.2 mm/day.
FIGURE 1 : Rainfall Map for Malaysia
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